The concept of cargo transportation
Economic development in countries begins with the construction of transport routes. It is no coincidence that all the developed countries of the world are characterized by a developed dense network of transport routes. The raw materials are transported to the processing enterprise by means of transport, the finished product is delivered to the consumers, contacts are established between branches of production, settlements, countries, etc. In other words, a new value is created in the transport system, which is why this branch is called material production.
The formation of the transport services market depends on the national characteristics of the country, which determines the type of international transportation in that country. International transportation in Armenia is mainly divided into two groups: export-import and international transit transportation. In some countries there is also the following group of international transports - foreign ship rentals, cargo transportation. The fundamental differences between these three groups are related to:
1. With the technological schemes of cargo transportation, organization of services, payment system for transportation and the system of mutual accounts of the participants of the transportation process. An important factor here is the geographical features of the technological schemes of transportation.
2. With the growth of the cargo market. In the case of export-import, the whole market is determined by the foreign trade turnover of the country and the economic situation of the country;
The technological relevance of the transportation process in the world transport services markets is divided into the following schemes:
- Direct rail
- Direct motor
- Direct aircraft
The main terms used in world practice and related to mixed transport are suggested in transport contracts, railway agreements. These include terms and concepts used by transport cargo bodies. Among them are:
- Multimodal transportation. This is transportation where at least 2 types of transport are specialized.
- Intermodal transportation. Cargo is transported by the same transport using several types of cargo.
- Combined transportation. Intermodal transportation, where most of the road is transported by rail, inland waterway and / or sea, and the initial and final part is by road.
- Running roads. Transportation of a loaded vehicle is reduced by a rail freight platform.
- Accompanied transportation. Transportation of a loaded vehicle by other means of transport.
- Ro-ro transportation. Transportation of wheeled rolling stock by ships by horizontal loading.
- Lo-lo transportation. Vertical loading and unloading of large loads.
- Intermodal transport equipment used during intermodal transportation.
- Panamax transportation by vessels of such size that can cross the Panama Canal. These dimensions are: maximum length 295 m, width 32.25 m.
- Overover-Panamax. The transportation is carried out: the length is 295 m, the width is more than 32.5 m,
- Terminal. It is a place where the type of transport is changed and the cargo is processed.
Many and various goods are transported by means of transport. Given the physicochemical properties of each product, different products are transported in the appropriate way.
Legal regulation of international cargo transportation
Many countries adopt special legislation on international cargo transportation, which is usually based on and supplemented by transport conventions.
The sources of international transport law are:
- International agreements and treaties
- Resolutions of international organizations on international transportation
- National legislation of individual countries
- Judicial practice
- Traditions of individual states
The Transport Conventions set out the basic requirements, requirements, requisites, as well as the forms of transport documents that must be applied during international transport. The two most common types of transport documents are bill of lading (for rail, air and road) and bill of lading (for sea-to-river communications).
International agreements serve to unify different rules and requirements. They are accepted only with the consent of the parties and only in the areas determined by specific agreements. In addition to multilateral agreements and conventions, there are numerous international agreements that also deal with transport activities and are concluded on a bilateral basis.
Cargo transportation in Armenia according to separate types of transport
As the Republic of Armenia is a typical mountainous country with a very fragmented surface, the construction of transport routes is associated with difficulties and high costs. Despite these difficulties, a number of trade routes were built through the territory of historic Armenia from north to south and from west to east, through which Armenia maintained trade and economic ties with many countries. The construction of modern transport routes in the current territory of the republic began in the late 19th century in connection with the construction of railways. And from the 1920s until today, not only is the railway network of the republic being reconstructed and developed, but also a network of modern highways is being created, as well as other modes of transport, through which Armenia carries out international cargo transportation with different countries of the world.
The Republic of Armenia carries out a part of its international cargo transportation by rail.
1988 The length of the railway operated in the republic was 831 km (no new railways were built later). Now the railway of the republic is completely electrified. During the blockade in the country (1994) the freight turnover of the railway decreased sharply. The length of the RA railway in 2017 was 711 km.
Armenia also carries out its international "domestic cargo turnover" by road transport. 2017 This branch of transport accounted for 62.8% of the total volume of cargo transportation. In the same year, the cargo turnover of this branch amounted to 74.6 million tons-kilometers.
The main gas pipeline from Georgia to Armenia branches off and covers the entire territory of the republic. The gas pipeline is now the main means of transportation, which imports the fuel that plays a crucial role for the republic, which is also conditioned by the activity of the republic's thermal energy economy. 2005 The construction of the Iran-Armenia gas pipeline has started, through which not only our republic will receive a large amount of natural gas from Iran, but also Iranian gas will be exported to Europe through Armenia. The share of pipeline transport in the total volume of cargo transportation in the country in 2017 was 10.1%.
Air transport is of special importance due to the complex geographical location of the Republic of Armenia. Air transport cargo turnover in 2017 amounted to 5.8 million t-km.